https://alliedhealth.ouhsc.edu/Departments Parent Page: Departments id: 7202 Active Page: SCHOOL OUTCOMES MEASURE (SOM)™ RESEARCHid:7343

Tool Development and Measurement

SCHOOL OUTCOMES MEASURE (SOM)™ RESEARCH

The development and validation of the School Outcomes Measure (SOM) is led by Sandra Arnold, PT, PhD and Thubi Kolobe, PT, Phd, FAPTA, both from the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences. The SOM is a minimal data set for collecting outcomes of students who receive school-based occupational therapy and physical therapy services. 

Purpose

  • School-based occupational therapists and physical therapists are expected to measure the effectiveness of their student interventions
  • No tool currently exists to measure outcomes of all students with disabilities ages 3-21 years
  • The SOM stands poised, as a national minimal data set, to capture and measure those student outcomes.

Current Research

  • National validation study, U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (IES) R234A160226 Validating the School Outcomes Measure (SOM™): An Outcomes Measure for Student who Receive School-based Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy
    • Collect national student data to validate and evaluate the SOM’s responsiveness 
    • Develop a national open-access data collection and analysis system
  • Study Participant Information [link]

SOM Research Tools

Research Manuals

Reliability Training

Instructions for completing the SOM and PEDI-CAT interrater reliability for the SOM research study. Participants will complete reliability for each tool through these same steps:

  1. Watch the OUHSC Research Study Introduction PowerPoint presentation (includes audio), by clicking on "OUHSC Research Study Introduction" to access the hyperlink.
  2. When you are ready to complete the SOM reliability, watch the SOM Overview PowerPoint presentation (includes audio) [click hyperlink below], then watch the SOM Reliability Video (below) using the SOM Items for Reliability (below) as your guide. Similarly, when you are ready to complete the PEDI-CAT reliability, watch the PEDI-CAT Overview PowerPoint presentation (includes audio) [click hyperlink below], then watch the PEDI-CAT Reliability Video (below) using the PEDI-CAT Items for Reliability (below) as your guide.
  3. Score the SOM items and PEDI-CAT items on the corresponding SOM Items for Reliability  form and PEDI-CAT Items for Reliability Form, attached below, for all students in both reliability videos.

  4. After compleing the reliability forms, transfer scored answers for the Independant Reliability Testing sections to the corresponding SOM Reliability Excel Sheet and the PEDI-CAT Reliability Excel Sheet.  Note, both Excel sheets are included in the single Excel file, "PEDI-CAT and SOM Reliability Excel Sheets", attached below.  Hand deliver or scan and email both Excel sheets to the SSC (or the OUHSC researcher who provided the training), who will follow up to verify participant reliability on the SOM and the PEDI-CAT.

  5. After receipt of verification of reliability on both the SOM and the PEDI-CAT, the SSC or OUHSC researcher will assist the participant with recruitment and completing the SOM and the PEDI-CAT tools with the students from participants' caseloads.

*Note, all videos and forms are password protected.


OUHSC Research Study Introduction

Informed Consent

SSC Instructions | Therapists Data Instructions

SOM OverviewSOM Reliability Video (The video link is in your OUHSC email.)  | SOM Items for Reliability   Gold standard: SOM training items

PEDI-CAT Overview  | PEDI-CAT Reliability Video (The video link is in your OUHSC email.)   | PEDI-CAT Items for Reliability  | Gold standard: PEDI-CAT training items

PEDI-CAT and SOM Reliability Excel Sheets | Gold standard: SOM and PEDI-CAT independent participant scoring

Additional Research Tools

Contact Info

Arnold and Kolobe

Sandra H. Arnold, PT, PhD
E-mail: sandra-arnold@ouhsc.edu 
(405) 271-2131 Ext. 47118

Thubi H.A. Kolobe, PT, PhD, FAPTA
E-mail: hkolobe@ouhsc.edu [hyperlink]
(405) 271-2131 Ext. 47121

Address: 
University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences
1200 N Stonewall, Room 1130
Oklahoma City, OK 73126-0901

Publications and Funding

Publications

Peer Reviewed Publications:

  • Klug, K.B., Kolobe, T.H.A., James, S.A., & Arnold, S.H. (2020). Concurrent Validity of the School Outcomes Measure and the School Function Assessment in Elementary Students. Pediatric Physical Therapy,32 (3), 180-88. doi: 10.1097/PEP.0000000000000710
  • Wilson, R.A.A., Kolobe, T.H.A., Arnold, S. H., & McEwen, I.R (2015).  Concurrent Validity of the School Outcomes Measure (SOM) and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) in Preschool Aged Children. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 35(1), 40-53.
  • Arnold, S. H., Kolobe,T.H.A, Thompson, D.M.,& Boeckman,L.(2013). Assessing the Discriminative Ability and Internal Consistency of the School Outcomes Measure ISRN Rehabilitation, Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 607416, 8 Pages, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/607416
  •  Arnold, S.H., & McEwen, I. R. (2008). Item Test-Retest Reliability and Responsiveness of the School Outcomes Measure (SOM). Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 28(1), 59-77.
  •  Arnold, S. H. (2003). Methodological Research of a Developing Minimal Data Set that Measures Outcomes of Students Receiving School-Based Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy, The University Of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Digital Dissertations/Pro-Quest Data Base, AAT 3095288.
  • McEwen, I. R., Arnold, S. H., Hansen, L. H., & Johnson, D. (2003). Interrater Reliability and Content Validity of a Minimal Data Set to Measure Outcomes of Students Receiving School-based Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy.  Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 23(2), 77-95.  

Peer-Reviewed Presentations:

  • Arnold, S.H., Fragala-Pinkham, M., James, S.A., Kramer, J.M., & Kolobe, T.H.A. Determinants of Change in Student Mobility, Daily Activity, and Social-Cognitive Status during a School Year. Feb. 2021, Combined Sections Meeting of the American Physical Therapy Association, virtual conference (COVID-19). 
  • Fragala-Pinkham, M., Kolobe, T.H.A., James, S.A., Kramer, J.M., & Arnold, S.H. Functional Changes in Students Receiving Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in School. Feb. 2021, Combined Sections Meeting of the American Physical Therapy Association, virtual conference (COVID-19).
  • Porter, A., Jones, M., Kolobe, T., Arnold, S. Location of school-based therapy: does it matter when examining participation outcomes? Nov. 15, 2019, American Physical Therapy Association, Academy of Pediatric Physical Therapy Annual Conference, Anaheim, California.
  • Evaluating Dimensionality of Scales: Implications for Tool Utility. Arnold, S.H., Kolobe, THA, Smith, E. May 12, 2019, World Confederation for Physical Therapy Congress 2019, Geneva, Switzerland. [Poster]
  • Planning a National Study: Overcoming Challenges. Arnold, S. H., Kolobe, T.K., Porter, A., November 10, 2018. The APTA Academy of Pediatric Physical Therapy Annual Conference, Chattanooga, Tennessee. [Poster]
  • Arnold, S. H., Validating the Outcomes of Students Who Receive School-based Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy, Oct. 10, 2017, 33rd Annual Pacific Rim International Conference on Disability and Diversity, Honolulu, Hawaii
  • Construct Validity of the School Outcomes Measure (SOM) When Used with secondary   Students Receiving School-Based Therapy, MacRone-Wojton, M., Arnold, S.H., Kolobe, T.H.A., & DeGrace, B.W., April, 2016; American Occupational Therapy Association Annual Conference & Expo, Chicago, Illinois. [Poster]
  • Concurrent Validity of the School Outcomes Measure (SOM) and the School Function Assessment (SFA), Klug, K., Arnold, S.H., Kolobe, T.H.A., James, S., DeGrace, B., & Silverman, M, February, 2016; American Physical Therapy Association Combined Sections Meeting, Anaheim, California. [Poster] 
  • Measuring the Outcomes of Students: Rasch Analysis of the School Outcomes Measure (SOM), Arnold, SH, Kolobe, THA, & Smith, E., January, 2013; American Physical Therapy Association Combined Sections Meeting, San Diego, California.Poster
  • Concurrent Validity of the School Outcomes Measure with the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory in Preschool-age Children, Amundson, RA, Kolobe, THA, Arnold, SH, & McEwen, IR, February 2012, American Physical Therapy Association, Combined Sections Meeting, Chicago, Illinois [Poster]
  • Arnold, S.H., Concurrent Validity of the School Outcomes Measure with the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory in Preschool-age Children, April 2012, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, College of Allied Health Research Day: An Exposition of Student and Faculty Research, Oklahoma City
  • Arnold, S.H., Internal Consistency of the School Outcomes Measure, June 2008, American Physical Therapy Association Scientific Meeting and Exposition, San Antonio, Texas
  • Arnold, S.H., Development of the School Outcomes Measure: A Minimal Data Set that Measures Outcomes of Students Receiving School-Based Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, July 2004, American Physical Therapy Association Scientific Meeting and Exposition, Chicago, Illinois
  • Arnold, S.H., Methodological Research of the School Outcomes Measure(SOM), Feb. 2004, Combined Sections Meeting of the American Physical Therapy Association, Nashville, Tennessee
  • Arnold, S.H., Improving Services for Children with Disabilities: Measuring Outcomes, June 2000, American Physical Therapy Association Scientific Meeting and Exposition, Indianapolis, Indiana
     

Funding

  • 2016-2020 - Validating the School Outcomes Measure (SOM): An Outcomes Measure for Students Who Receive School-based Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy,   Arnold, S.H. - Principal Investigator & Project Director, Special Education Research Grants- Measurement, Institute of Education Sciences, ($1,599,806), 1-year no cost extension (2020-2021)
  • 2006-2007 - Construct Validation of School Outcomes Measure, Arnold, S.H.- Principal Investigator, Presbyterian Health Foundation Seed Grant, OUHSC, ($23,829), 1-year no-cost extension (2007-2008)
  • 1999-2000 - Preliminary Reliability and Validity of a Minimal Data Set to Measure Outcomes of School-Based Occupational and Physical Therapy, McEwen, I.M.- Project Director; Arnold, S.H. - Research Assistant, Presbyterian Health Foundation seed grant, ($27,188)